Central America


Central America ( Spanish : América Central, Centroamérica ) is a region of America bordered on the north by the Yucatan Peninsula , Mexico and on the south by Colombia , bordered to the west by the Pacific Ocean and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean . Despite being considered one of the subcontinents of America , this region is located on a tectonic plate of its own: the Caribbean Plate . Thus, it is formed by the central strip of the American continent comprising the Isthmian and Antillean sovereign States plus dependencies located in the Caribbean Sea (or Caribbean Sea).

There are mountains throughout the entire region, with those located to the south being a continuation of the Andes ; the highest is Mount Tajumulco , in Guatemala , at 4,220 meters above sea level . Most are volcanic , as the region sits at a junction between a crustal plate and a dangerous earthquake zone . Nicaragua 's two large lakes interrupt the chain . The climate is tropical , although above 760 m the temperature is milder and there is cultivation ofcoffee . Cattle are raised , especially in Honduras . Elsewhere, volcanic ash fertilized the land, making it possible to grow bananas , sugar cane , corn and fruit . The Pacific mountains slope steeply towards the coast , while towards the north and east, on the Yucatan peninsula and coastal plains , slope gently towards the sea . In the east the rain is heavy; the rivers bring large amounts of silt and there is a forestdense behind the mangroves of the beaches . The region has large deposits of oil and gas , as well as silver and gold .

It was already populated by several aboriginal groups when the first Europeans arrived there, at the beginning of the 16th century . Its colonization of European origin started from the Caribbean colonies of Hispaniola and Cuba . From 1535 to 1810, Central America, with the exception of Panama , was part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain and came under the jurisdiction of the viceroy who ruled from Mexico City .

With the independence of the Isthmian Central American countries from Spain in 1821, most of the area was annexed until 1822 to the Mexican Empire of Augustín de Iturbide . From 1823 to 1838, he attempted a political confederation, the Union of Central American Provinces ( Costa Rica , Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and El Salvador ), but this was overthrown by rivalry between liberal and conservative groups and by regional jealousies. In 1839 the political unit was extinguished. Military caudillos dominated for the rest of the 19th century. American adventurer William Walker invaded Nicaragua (1855-1857). The British occupied San Juan del Norte Greytown (1848) and the Bay Islands of Honduras in order to gain control of the Mosquito coast and block American plans to build an interoceanic canal, while exerting diplomatic pressure to secure the use of the canal. across the region. In 1951, the Organization of Central American States was formed to help solve common problems. The Economic Commission for Latin America , a United Nations body , encouraged cooperation in matters of production, tariffs, and trade among member countries of the Latin American Free Trade Association.(which changed its name in 1980 to the Association for Latin American Integration ) and the Central American Common Market .

Fonte: Site Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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